NAHDLATUL ULAMANahdlatul Ulama (Ulama Awakening orRevival of Islamic Scholars), abbreviated asNU, is an organization of Islam the largest in Indonesia. This organization was established on January 31 1926 and is engaged ineducational, social, and economic Both mental retardation, and the economy experienced by the nation Indonesia, due to colonialism as well as due to the confines of tradition, has arouse awareness of the educated to fight for the dignity of this nation, through education and organization of the road. The movement that emerged in 1908 was known as the "National Awakening". The spirit of revival is continuing to spread everywhere - once aware of the suffering of indigenous people and catch up with other nations. In response, there was a variety of educational organizations and liberation. Among schools that had been determined againstcolonialism, responding to the national awakening movement by forming organizations, such as Nahdlatul Wathan1916. Later in the year 1918 was established Taswirul AfkarNahdlatut Tujjar, (the movement of the merchant).States that create a basis for improving the people's economy.With the Nahdlatul Tujjar , then Taswirul Afkar, in addition to appearing as a study group is also the educational institution that is growing very rapidly and has branches in several cities. (Resurrection of the country) on or also known as "Nahdlatul Fikri" (awakening of thought), as vehicle for social education and religious politics of the students. From there it was subsequently established).A time of King Ibn Saud wanted to apply a single principle that is the school of Wahhabis in Mecca, among the schools that had been defending diversity, reject restrictionsbermazhab and destruction of the civilization heritage. With a different attitude among the boarding school was removed from the members of Al-Islam congress in Yogyakarta in1925. Consequently among the schools are also not included as delegates in Mu'tamar 'Alam Islami (Islamic Congress International) in Mecca which will validate those decisions.Other sources mention that the KH Hasyim Ash'ari, KH Wahab Hasbullah and other NU elders do walk out. Driven by a persistent interest bermazhab freedom to create and care for heritage preservation of civilization, then the schools are forced to make his own delegation called Hejaz Committee, chaired by KH Wahab Hasbullah. At the urging of the boarding schools that accumulate in the Committee of Hejaz, and challenges from all corners of the world's Muslims, then thought better of King Ibn Saud. As a result, until recently in Mecca held worship freely in accordance with their respective schools. That's the first international role among boarding schools, a successful fight for freedom bermazhab and managed to save relics of history and civilization that is very valuable.
Departing from committees and various organizations that are embryonic and ad hoc, then after that it is necessary to form an organization that includes more and more systematically, to anticipate the times. So after coordinating with the variousclerics, finally emerged agreement to form an organization called Nahdlatul Ulama (Awakening of Ulama) on 16 Rajab 1344 AH (January 31, 1926). The organization is led by KH Hasyim Ash'ari as Rais Akbar. To affirm the basic principle of this organization, then KH Hasyim Ash'ari formulated the book Qanun Rights (basic principles), then also formulate I'tiqad Ahl al-Sunnah Wal Jamaat book. Both books are then embodied in Khittah NU, which serve as the basis and reference NU in thought and action in social, religious and political. NU adopts Ahlussunah waljama'ah, a mindset that takes a middle way between extreme aqli (rationalist) with the extreme Naqli (skripturalis).
Therefore, the source of thought for NU not only the Qur'an, Sunnah, but also uses the mind's ability coupled with empirical reality. How to think like that are referred from earlier thinkers such as Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari and Abu Mansur Al-Maturidi in the field of theology.Then in the field of jurisprudence is more likely to follow the school of: imam Shafi'i and admitted three other schools: Imam Hanafi, Imam Malik, and Imam Hanbali as depicted in the emblem NU 4 star below. While in the field of mysticism, develop methods of Al-Ghazali and Junaid al-Baghdadi, who integrate between mysticism with the Shari'a.
The idea back kekhittah in 1984, is an important momentum to reinterpret the teachings of Ahl al-Sunnah wal pilgrims, as well as redefine the methods of thinking, both in the field of jurisprudence and social. And merumuskankembali NU relationship with the state. The movement was successfully re-awaken the passion of thought and social dynamics within NU.
In determining the base supporters or members of NU are some terms that need to be clarified, namely: members, supporters or sympathizers, and traditionalist Muslims who disagree with the NU. If the term is equated with the term citizen members, so until this day no one resmipun document that can be referred to it. This is because until now no serious effort in NU's body at any level to manage the membership.When viewed in terms of supporters or sympathizers, there are two ways to view it. In terms of politics, can be seen from the number of votes parties are based or associated with NU, like PKBU, PNU, PKU, Sunni Party, and part of the PPP. In terms of religious understanding it can be seen from the number of people who support and follow NU Religious understand. So in this case can be referred to the research Saiful Mujani (2002) which ranges from 48% of Indonesian Muslim students. Suaidi Asyari estimates there are about 51 million Muslim students from Indonesia can be said to supporters or followers of religious understanding NU. Total number of Muslim religious students called up to 80 million or more, are they the same religious understanding with Religious understand NU. But they are not necessarily all of them residents or want to be called affiliated with NU.Based on the location and characteristics, the majority of NU followers there are in Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Sumatra. In recent developments have shown that the NU followers diverse profession, though most of them are ordinary people both in urban and rural. They have high cohesiveness, because the social economy have the same problem, and it is also equally very teachings of Ahlus Sunnah wal animates the pilgrims. In general, they have strong enough ties with the Islamic world that is central to people's education and cultural preservation NU. NU supporter base is likely to experience a shift. In line with the development and progress of industrialization, the NU residents in the village many who migrated to the city entered the industrial sector. So if all this time NU stronger base in the peasant sector in the countryside, then when the labor sector in urban areas, is also quite dominant. Likewise, the opening of the education system, the intellectual base in the NU also increasingly widespread, along with rapid social mobility that occurred during this. Lately, NU already has a number of doctorate or masters in various fields of science other than the Islamic sciences of both from within and outside the country, including Western countries. But the doctors and masters was not fully utilized by the board in almost every layer NU NU stewardship.